Toronto Metropolitan University
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The Xograph®: An Investigation of Parallax Panoramagrams and Earlier Autostereoscopic Techniques

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posted on 2022-11-09, 17:30 authored by Vanessa Dumais
Introduced by Cowles Communications and Visual Panographics in 1964, the xograph® or parallax panoramagram, was the first lenticular, autostereoscopic, photomechanical object created for the mass media. Publications such as LOOK magazine and Venture: A Traveler’s Guide frequently distributed xographs® during the 1960s and 1970s, after which time, the xograph® began to disappear from mass publications. The thesis provides a detailed account of the history of three-dimensional photographic techniques and places the xograph® within this history. It addresses the contributions and collaboration of Arthur Rothstein, Marvin Whatmore, Visual Panographics and Cowles Communications in the creation, production and dissemination of xographs®. The thesis then describes xograph® production process and the results of an electron microscopic analysis of an xograph® made to determine its physical properties . The conclusion offers suggestions for preservation guidelines for these fascinating objects.





  • Master of Arts


  • Photographic Preservation and Collections Management

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type

  • Thesis