Toronto Metropolitan University
Perretta_Antonietta.pdf (362.75 kB)
Download file

Skin lightening in an age of enlightenment: an exploration of the history, risks, and pedagogical implications of a beauty trend

Download (362.75 kB)
posted on 2021-05-22, 17:27 authored by Antonietta Perretta
Historical and contemporary data demonstrates that people with darker skin have often participated in skin lightening practices (by blending home remedies, using skin care products designed to lighten or brighten skin, and undergoing cosmetic medical treatments) in order to alter their appearance to fit Eurocentric beauty ideals. This major research project explores the practice of lightening or brightening skin, the marketing strategies that perpetuate this trend, and the risks to consumers and practitioners. It also seeks to point to ways the research may be used to improve the teaching and learning environment for the next generation of spa and cosmetic professionals. Keywords: skin lightening, hydroquinone, medical spa, medical esthetician, esthetic education standardization





  • Master of Arts


  • Fashion

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type

  • MRP