Toronto Metropolitan University
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Madow & Muslim in Canada: Barriers Impacting the Success of Somali Youth within the Ontario Public-School System

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posted on 2023-07-12, 18:33 authored by Deeqa Abdulkarim

Despite the social exclusion of Black youth within the public-school system being well documented locally and internationally, showing us that Black youth are denied access to and participation in education, the labour market, the political system and even some public spaces. There is little research that examines how racism and Islamophobia impact the schooling experiences of Somali youth - and their dual experiences as both Black and Muslim in Canada. As such, this literature review seeks to highlight the ways in which Somali youth within Ontario schools often experience multiple forms of discrimination within the education system, similar and different from other Black refugee groups, and Black Canadian youth. Despite the

considerable differences in socio-economic, demographic and cultural population between these three above-mentioned groups, these youths may face similar barriers within the Ontario public-school system.

Key Words: Somali youth, Anti-Black racism, Islamophobia





  • Master of Arts


  • Immigration and Settlement Studies

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type

  • MRP

Thesis Advisor

Sedef Arat-Koc