Toronto Metropolitan University
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Finding the missing middle: the potential and capacity for missing middle growth in Toronto

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posted on 2022-05-24, 14:04 authored by Daniel Robert Bailey
Interest in and action to add missing middle to cities across North America has seen a recent increase, with mixed success. Toronto City Council has recently requested a staff report on potential ways to add different housing options to Toronto’s neighbourhood, suggesting changes may be in progress here. Missing middle has the potential to reduce Toronto’s reliance on mid/high-rise apartments for new housing, and create more housing supply especially for middle-income family households. The need for and impact of regulatory changes must be evaluated to create appropriate reforms and communicate them with stakeholders and the public. This research paper provides initial housing type growth projections, maximum densities for housing typologies, and upper limits on the capacity of missing middle to add housing to Toronto’s neighbourhoods. KEY WORDS: missing middle; land use planning; housing; gentle density; Toronto





  • Master of Planning


  • Urban Development

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type

  • MRP

Thesis Advisor

Lindsey Rolheiser