Toronto Metropolitan University
Esmail_Karima.pdf (3.42 MB)

Environmental and Ethno-Cultural Groups Working Together: an Examination of Toronto Based Environmental Programs

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posted on 2021-05-24, 14:28 authored by Karima Esmail
This research explores how environmental groups in Toronto are encouraging ethno-cultural groups to participate in environmental activities. This research intersects three areas: the environmental movement, volunteering, and ethno-cultural diversity. A literature review of these areas was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews with key informants from environmental groups in Toronto were conducted. Key informants were individuals involved in the planning and implementation of selected environmental programs. The findings of this research suggest: [1] the terms volunteer and participant can have different meanings; [2] ethno-culturally specific data is not collected by environmental groups; [3] environmental groups do no[t] ask volunteers and participants about motivation; [4] local interactions are important; [5] environmental programs are multi-faceted; [6] environmental groups do not work in isolation; [7] funding affects long-term planning; [8] ethno-cultural sensitivity is important. Based on these findings, best practices of how environmental groups can encourage ethno-cultural groups to participate in environmental activities are proposed.





  • Master of Applied Science


  • Environmental Applied Science and Management

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type

  • Thesis

Thesis Advisor

Beth Moore Milroy