Toronto Metropolitan University
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Building buy-in for missing middle housing: best practices for municipal planners in North America

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posted on 2023-09-18, 20:05 authored by Scott Turnbull

As cities in North America continue to experience strong population growth and lagging housing supply, the creation of more housing units through residential intensification is an increasing priority. One major avenue for residential intensification is through the introduction of Missing Middle Housing in low-density single-family neighbourhoods.

However, this proposed intensification is often met with strong community resistance and Not-in-My-Backyard (NIMBY) attitudes. Strategies and best practices for planners seeking to manage this resistance and secure community support for Missing Middle Initiatives in their city is an underexplored area within the planning literature. As such, this major research project seeks to identify these best practices through a comprehensive literature review and conducting interviews with planners and experts associated with the delivery of Missing Middle Housing. The results of this paper will provide up to date best practices that are intended to serve as a practical resource for municipal planners interested in understanding how other cities worked to build support for Missing Middle Housing.





  • Master of Planning


  • Urban Development

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type

  • MRP

Thesis Advisor

Shelagh McCartney