Toronto Metropolitan University
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A Modest Referee: Measuring the UNESCO CCD’S Effect on Culture and Free Trade Agreement Negotiation

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posted on 2023-05-30, 15:51 authored by Chantal Braganza
The purpose of this research is to assess the effectiveness of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CCD) as a trade instrument intended to protect local culture and cultural industries from free market influences. Much previous writing has pointed out flaws or weaknesses in its legal language and structure; few studies have been carried out on the way it has been cited and employed in actual trade negotiations and disputes. Through a recount of the its history, a close read of the original document of the CCD itself, and a case-study examination of two recently signed free trade agreements and a concluded international trade dispute, this research paper will show that the ways in which this nearly 15-year-old document has been employed does not quite live up to its intended purpose. Keywords: cultural policy, free trade, UNESCO CCD, culture and trade disputes, cultural diplomacy, CETA, CPTPP





  • Master of Arts


  • Communication and Culture

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type

  • MRP