Toronto Metropolitan University
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The Lysosome Signaling Platform: Adapting With the Times

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-01-31, 16:33 authored by Subothan Inpanathan, Roberto BotelhoRoberto Botelho

Lysosomes are the terminal degradative compartment of autophagy, endocytosis and phagocytosis. What once was viewed as a simple acidic organelle in charge of macromolecular digestion has emerged as a dynamic organelle capable of integrating cellular signals and producing signal outputs. In this review, we focus on the concept that the lysosome surface serves as a platform to assemble major signaling hubs like mTORC1, AMPK, GSK3 and the inflammasome. These molecular assemblies integrate and facilitate cross-talk between signals such as amino acid and energy levels, membrane damage and infection, and ultimately enable responses such as autophagy, cell growth, membrane repair and microbe clearance. In particular, we review how molecular machinery like the vacuolar-ATPase proton pump, sestrins, the GATOR complexes, and the Ragulator, modulate mTORC1, AMPK, GSK3 and inflammation. We then elaborate how these signals control autophagy initiation and resolution, TFEB-mediated lysosome adaptation, lysosome remodeling, antigen presentation, inflammation, membrane damage repair and clearance. Overall, by being at the cross-roads for several membrane pathways, lysosomes have emerged as the ideal surveillance compartment to sense, integrate and elicit cellular behavior and adaptation in response to changing environmental and cellular conditions.