Exploring barriers to living donor kidney transplant for African, Caribbean and Black communities in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario: a qualitative study protocol
Introduction Living donor (LD) kidney transplant (KT) is the best treatment option for many patients with kidney failure as it improves quality of life and survival compared with dialysis and deceased donor KT. Unfortunately, LDKT is underused, especially among groups marginalised by race and ethnicity. African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) patients are 60%–70% less likely to receive LDKT in Canada compared with white patients. Research from the USA and the UK suggests that mistrust, cultural and generational norms, access, and affordability may contribute to inequities. To date, no Canadian studies have explored the beliefs and behaviours related to LDKT in ACB communities. Research approaches that use a critical, community-based approach can help illuminate broader structural factors that may shape individual beliefs and behaviours. In this qualitative study, we will investigate barriers to accessing LDKT in ACB communities in the Greater Toronto Area, to enhance our understanding of the perspectives and experiences of ACB community members, both with and without lived experience of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods and analysis Hospital-based and community-based recruitment strategies will be used to recruit participants for focus groups and individual interviews. Participants will include self-identified ACB individuals with and without experiences of CKD and nephrology professionals. Collaboration with ACB community partners will facilitate a community-based research approach. Data will be analysed using reflexive thematic analysis and critical race theory. Findings will be revised based on feedback from ACB community partners.
Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the University Health Network Research Ethics Board UHN REB file #15-9775. Study findings will contribute to the codevelopment of culturally safe and responsive educational materials to raise awareness about CKD and its treatments and to improve equitable access to high-quality kidney care, including LDKT, for ACB patients.