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Dietary (n-3) Fat and Cholesterol Alter Tissue Antioxidant Enzymes and Susceptibility to Oxidation in SHR and WKY Rats

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posted on 2023-06-20, 13:35 authored by Yvonne YuanYvonne Yuan, David D. Kitts

Previously, 8% fish oil blend diets, compared to butter and soybean oil blend diets, reduced specific antioxidant enzyme activities and tissue susceptibility to in vitro oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Moreover, high cholesterol (5.0 g/kg diet) diets protected against in vitro tissue lipid oxidation. In this study, we hypothesized that 160 g fat/kg diet as blends of (n-6) or (n-3) oils and cholesterol would alter antioxidant enzyme activities and thus increase tissue susceptibility to oxidation. The effects of diet blends of saturated (butter, B), (n-6) (soybean oil, SBO) or (n-3) (menhaden oil, MO) oils with cholesterol (0.5 or 5.0 g/kg) on systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma lipids, antioxidant enzymes and susceptibility to oxidation were examined in SHR and WKY rats. SBP at 13 wk of age was greater (P ? 0.001) in SHR than in WKY rats, but was not affected by diets. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols were decreased (P ? 0.001) by MO diets. Hepatic glutathione reductase activities were reduced (P ? 0.001) in SBO-fed SHR and enhanced in SBO- and MO-fed WKY rats. Glutathione levels were reduced (P ? 0.001) in RBC and enhanced (P ? 0.001) in livers of MO-fed rats. Lipid oxidation was enhanced (P ? 0.001) in red blood cells (RBC) from SBO groups, and hearts and livers of MO groups. High cholesterol diets reduced (P ? 0.001) susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in RBC and liver of SHR and WKY rats. Greater amounts of dietary (n-3) fat enhance tissue susceptibility to oxidation, which can be modulated by increased dietary cholesterol in SHR and WKY rats.

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